- Obtained from Gaultheria procumbens leaves
- Methyl salicylate is the major chemical compound (96 -99 %)11,12
- Richest source of plant-produced salicylates13
- Rubefascient (hyperaemia)
- Contra-indicated in case of known allergies to Aspirine
Mechanism of Action
- Mainly by methyl salicylate acting trough several mechanisms including antioxidative effects (inhibition of the of NO and ROS)
Analgesia15, 16, 17
- Suppression of COX-2 activity by salicylates probably occurs at the expression level (inhibition of COX-2 mRNA synthesis and COX-2 promoter activity). Ability of inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase is unclear (COX inhibition is < 100-fold lower than that for acetylsalicylic acid)
- Activation and desensitization of cutaneous nerves
- W.-R. LIU ET AL., GAULTHERIA: PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS. MOLECULES 18, 12071 (2013).
- M. Nikolic et al., Chemical composition and biological activity of Gaultheria procumbens L. essential oil. Industrial Crops and Products 49, 561-567 (2013).
- D. M. Ribnicky, A. Poulev, I. Raskin, The Determination of Salicylates in Gaultheria procumbens for Use as a Natural Aspirin Alternative. Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional & Medical Foods 4, 39-52 (2003).
- D. Zhang et al., Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl salicylate glycosides isolated from Gaultheria yunnanensis (Franch.) Rehder. Molecules 16, 3875-3884 (2011).
- L. Mason et al., Systematic review of efficacy of topical rubefacients containing salicylates for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. BMJ 328, 995 (2004).
- R. L. Barkin, The Pharmacology of Topical Analgesics. Postgraduate Medicine 125, 7-18 (2013). 17. K. K. Wu, Aspirin and Salicylate. An Old Remedy With a New Twist 102, 2022-2023 (2000).