- Obtained from Citrus limon skins
- Limonene is the major chemical compound (52 -99 %)18
Mechanism of Action
- Inhibits the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme that is involved in inflammation response (in vitro research)
- Relieves pain by binding to and activating opioid receptors in mice
Reduction of anxiety and depression21,22, 23
- Interaction with GABA receptor and possibly by modulating serotonin and noradrenalin levels (mice)
- Might involve an action on BDZ-type receptors
- D. HAMDAN, M. L. ASHOUR, S. MULYANINGSIH, A. EL-SHAZLY, M. WINK, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS OF VARIEGATED PINK-FLESHED LEMON (CITRUS X LIMON L. BURM. F.) AND THEIR ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES. Z NATURFORSCH C 68, 275-284 (2013).
- S. Baylac, P. Racine, Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase by essential oils and other natural fragrant extracts. International Journal of Aromatherapy 13, 138-142 (2003).
- L. M. Campelo et al., Antioxidant and antinociceptive effects of Citrus limon essential oil in mice. J Biomed Biotechnol 2011, 678673 (2011).
- L. M. L. C et al., Sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of Citrus limon (Burn) essential oil in mice. Die Pharmazie 66, 623-627 (2011).
- M. Komiya, T. Takeuchi, E. Harada, Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice. Behavioural Brain Research 172, 240-249 (2006).
- L. M. Lopes et al., Sedative, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of Citrus limon (Burn) essential oil in mice. Die Pharmazie 66, 623-627 (2011).